ARP Poisoning Attack
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On an Ethernet switch there is a data table known as the ARP cache, which stores mappings between media access control and IP addresses. During normal operations, Ethernet switches only allow directed traffic to flow between the ports involved in the conversation and no other ports can see that traffic. However, if the ARP cache is intentionally corrupted with an ARP poisoning attack, some Ethernet switches simply “flood” the directed traffic to all ports of the switch, which could allow an attacker to monitor traffic not normally visible to the port where the attacker was connected, and thereby eavesdrop on Voice-over Internet Protocol (VoIP) traffic.