Examples of Business Models
In the early history of business models it was very typical to define business model types such as bricks-and-mortar or e-broker. However, these types usually describe only one aspect of the business (most often the revenue model). Therefore, more recent literature on business models concentrate on describing a business model as a whole, instead of only the most visible aspects.
The following examples provide an overview for various business model types that have been in discussion since the invention of term business model:
- Business model by which a company integrates both offline (bricks) and online (clicks) presences. One example of the bricks-and-clicks model is when a chain of stores allows the user to order products online, but lets them pick up their order at a local store.
- Business system, organization or association typically composed of relatively large numbers of businesses, tradespersons or professionals in the same or related fields of endeavor, which pools resources, shares information or provides other benefits for their members. For example, a science park or high-tech campus provides shared resources (e.g. cleanrooms and other lab facilities) to the firms located on its premises, and in addition seeks to create an innovation community among these firms and their employees.
- The removal of intermediaries in a supply chain: "cutting out the middleman". Instead of going through traditional distribution channels, which had some type of intermediate (such as a distributor, wholesaler, broker, or agent), companies may now deal with every customer directly, for example via the Internet.
- Direct selling is marketing and selling products to consumers directly, away from a fixed retail location. Sales are typically made through party plan, one-to-one demonstrations, and other personal contact arrangements. A text book definition is: "The direct personal presentation, demonstration, and sale of products and services to consumers, usually in their homes or at their jobs."
- Value Added Reseller is a model where a business makes something which is resold by other businesses but with modifications which add value to the original product or service. These modifications or additions are mostly industry specific in nature and are essential for the distribution. Businesses going for a VAR model have to develop a VAR network. It is one of the latest collaborative business models which can help in faster development cycles and is adopted by many Technology companies especially software.
- Business model which works by charging the first client a fee for a service, while offering that service free of charge to subsequent clients.
- Franchising is the practice of using another firm's successful business model. For the franchisor, the franchise is an alternative to building 'chain stores' to distribute goods and avoid investment and liability over a chain. The franchisor's success is the success of the franchisees. The franchisee is said to have a greater incentive than a direct employee because he or she has a direct stake in the business.
• Sourcing business model
- A Sourcing Business Model is a type of business model that is applied specifically to business relationships where more than one party needs to work with another party to be successful. It is the combination of two concepts: the contractual relationship framework a company uses with its supplier (transactional, relational, investment based), and the economic model used (transactional, output or outcome-based).
- Business model that works by offering basic Web services, or a basic downloadable digital product, for free, while charging a premium for advanced or special features.
- Pay what you can (PWYC) is a non-profit or for-profit business model which does not depend on set prices for its goods, but instead asks customers to pay what they feel the product or service is worth to them. It is often used as a promotional tactic, but can also be the regular method of doing business. It is a variation on the gift economy and cross-subsidization, in that it depends on reciprocity and trust to succeed.
"Pay what you want" (PWYW) is sometimes used synonymously, but "pay what you can" is often more oriented to charity or socially oriented uses, based more on ability to pay, while "pay what you want" is often more broadly oriented to perceived value in combination with willingness and ability to pay.
Other examples of business models are:
- Auction business model
- All-in-one business model
- Chemical Leasing
- Low-cost carrier business model
- Loyalty business models
- Monopolistic business model
- Multi-level marketing business model
- Network effects business model
- Online auction business model
- Online content business model
- Online media cooperative
- Premium business model
- Professional open-source model
- Pyramid scheme business model
- Razor and blades business model
- Servitization of products business model
- Subscription business model
- M van der Borgh, M Cloodt & AGL Romme (2012). Value creation by knowledge-based ecosystems: Evidence from a field study. R&D Management, vol. 42: 150-169.
- Michael A. Belch George E. Belch Advertising and Promotion: An Integrated Marketing Communications Perspective, 7/e., McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2006
- JLM de la Iglesia, JEL Gayo, "Doing business by selling free services". Web 2.0: The Business Model, 2008. Springer
- Gergen, Chris; Gregg Vanourek (December 3, 2008). "The 'pay as you can' cafe". The Washington Times. http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2008/dec/03/the-pay-as-you-can-cafe/. Retrieved 2009-03-10.
- Mantzaris, Anna (April 2008). "Pay-what-you-like Restaurants". Budget Travel. http://www.budgettravel.com/bt-dyn/content/article/2008/02/29/AR2008022902761.html. Retrieved 2009-03-10.
- Tyrangiel, Josh (October 1, 2007). "Radiohead Says: Pay What You Want". Time Magazine. http://www.time.com/time/arts/article/0,8599,1666973,00.html. Retrieved 2009-03-10.
- "Pay What You Can". Alley Theatre. http://www.alleytheatre.org/Alley/Special_Offers_EN.asp?SnID=2. Retrieved 2009-03-10.