Helix Kitten

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Contrary to the other countries in this list, Iran seems to be increasingly utilizing contract hackers to conduct the regime’s offensive operations. Such ‘freelancers’ can hail from different countries and backgrounds, and may or may not be ‘true believers’ of the regime they’re working for.

Helix Kitten (also known as OilRig and APT34), however, is suspected to be one of the few groups of dedicated local operators working on behalf of the Iranian government.

Security experts believe that the group conducts most of its operations in the Middle East, targeting financial, energy, chemical, telecom, and other industries, as well as government institutions in countries seen by Iran as competitors to its regional dominance, such as Saudi Arabia and the UAE.

  • Allegiance: Iran
  • Active since: 2007
  • Best known for: The 2013 New York Dam hack, attacks on the Australian Parliament House in 2019